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PharmacotherapyFirst: A Multimedia Learning Resource

Quick Facts

  • 1. Walsh JK. Clinical and socioeconomic correlates of insomnia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65(suppl 8):13–9. MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 2. Roth T, Roehrs T. Insomnia: epidemiology, characteristics, and consequences. Clin Cornerstone. 2003;5(3):5–15. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 3. Buscemi N, Vandermeer B, Friesen C, et al.. Manifestations and Management of Chronic Insomnia in Adults. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 125. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2005. AHRQ pub no. 05-E021-2. Google Scholar,
  • 4. Longstreth WT Jr, Koepsell TD, Ton TG, Hendrickson AF, van Belle G. The epidemiology of narcolepsy. Sleep. 2007;30(1):13–26. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 5. Dauvilliers Y, Arnulf I, Mignot E. Narcolepsy with cataplexy. Lancet. 2007;369(9560):499–511. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 6. Young T, Palta M, Dempsey J, Scatrud J, Weber S, Badr S. The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-aged adults. N Engl J Med. 1993;328(17):1230–1235. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 7. Young T, Skatrud J, Peppard PE. Risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea in adults. JAMA. 2004;291(16):2013–2016. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 8. Sin DD, Fitzgerald F, Parker JD, Newton G, Floras JS, Bradley TD. Risk factors for central and obstructive sleep apnea in 450 men and women with congestive heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;160(4):1101–1106. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 9. Sack RL, Auckley D, Auger RR, et al.. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders: part I, basic principles, shift work and jet lag disorders. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine review. Sleep. 2007;30(11):1460–1483. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 10. Batool-Anwar S, Li Y, De Vito K, Malhotra A, Winkelman J, Gao X. Lifestyle factors and risk of restless legs syndrome: prospective cohort study. J Clin Sleep Med. 2016;12(2):187–194. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 11. Bollu PC, Yelam A, Thakkar MM. Sleep medicine: restless legs syndrome. Mo Med. 2018;115(4):380–387. MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 12. Guo S, Huang J, Jiang H, et al.. Restless legs syndrome: from pathophysiology to clinical diagnosis and management. Front Aging Neurosci. 2017;9:171. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 13. Eckert DJ, Jordan AS, Merchia P, Malhotra A. Central sleep apnea: pathophysiology and treatment. Chest 2007;131(2):595–607. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 14. Punjabi NM. The epidemiology of adult obstructive sleep apnea. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2008;5(2):136–143. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 15. Donovan LM, Kapur VK. Prevalence and characteristics of central compared to obstructive sleep apnea: analyses from the sleep heart health study cohort. Sleep. 2016;39(7):1353–1359. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 16. Kessler RC, Berglund PA, Coulouvrat C, et al.. Insomnia and the performance of US workers: results from the America insomnia survey. Sleep. 2011;34(9):1161–1171. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 17. Thorpy MJ, Hiller G. The medical and economic burden of narcolepsy: implications for managed care. Am Health Drug Benefits. 2017;10(5):233–241. MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 18. Frost and Sullivan. Hidden health crisis costing America billions: underdiagnosing and undertreating obstructive sleep apnea draining healthcare system. https://aasm.org/resources/pdf/sleep-apnea-economic-crisis.pdf. Accessed March 4, 2019. Google Scholar,
  • 19. Wickwire EM, Geiger-Brown J, Scharf SM, Drake CL. Shift work and shift work sleep disorder: Clinical and organizational perspectives. Chest. 2017;151(5):1156–1172. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 20. Salas RE, Kwan AB. The real burden of restless leg syndrome: clinical and economic outcomes. Am J Manag Care. 2012;18:S207-S212. MedlineGoogle Scholar,

Overview

  • 1. Levenson JC, Kay DB, Buysse DJ. The pathophysiology of insomnia. Chest. 2015;147(4):1179–1192. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 2. Mai E, Buysse DJ. Insomnia: prevalence, impact, pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, and evaluation. Sleep Med Clin. 2008;3(2):167–174. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 3. Roth T, Roehrs T. Insomnia: epidemiology, characteristics, and consequences. Clin Cornerstone. 2003;5(3):5–15. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 4. Dauvilliers Y, Arnulf I, Mignot E. Narcolepsy with cataplexy. Lancet. 2007;369(9560):499–511. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 5. Nishino S. Narcolepsy: pathophysiology and pharmacology. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68(suppl 13):9–15. MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 6. Horner RL. Pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2008;28(5):289–298. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 7. Eckert DJ, Jordan AS, Merchia P, Malhotra A. Central sleep apnea: pathophysiology and treatment. Chest 2007;131(2):595–607. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 8. Sack RL, Auckley D, Auger RR, et al.. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders: part I, basic principles, shift work and jet lag disorders. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine review. Sleep. 2007;30(11):1460–1483. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 9. Guo S, Huang J, Jiang H, et al.. Restless legs syndrome: from pathophysiology to clinical diagnosis and management. Front Aging Neurosci. 2017;9:171. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 10. Walsh JK. Clinical and socioeconomic correlates of insomnia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65(suppl 8):13–9. Google Scholar,
  • 11. Buscemi N, Vandermeer B, Friesen C, et al.. Manifestations and Management of Chronic Insomnia in Adults. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 125. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2005. AHRQ pub no. 05-E021-2. Google Scholar,
  • 12. Longstreth WT Jr, Koepsell TD, Ton TG, Hendrickson AF, van Belle G. The epidemiology of narcolepsy. Sleep. 2007;30(1):13–26. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 13. Young T, Skatrud J, Peppard PE. Risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea in adults. JAMA. 2004;291(16):2013–2016. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 14. Batool-Anwar S, Li Y, De Vito K, Malhotra A, Winkelman J, Gao X. Lifestyle factors and risk of restless legs syndrome: prospective cohort study. J Clin Sleep Med. 2016;12(2):187–194. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 15. Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF 3rd, Monk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Res. 1989;28(2):193–213. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 16. Johns MW. A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: The Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep. 1991;14(6):540–545. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 17. Hoddes E, Dement W, Zarcone V. The development and use of the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS). Psychophysiology 1972;9:150. Google Scholar,
  • 18. Morin CM, Belleville G, Belanger L, Ivers H. The insomnia severity index: psychometric indicators to detect insomnia cases and evaluate treatment response. Sleep. 2011;34(5):601–608. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 19. Sturzenegger C, Bassetti CL. The clinical spectrum of narcolepsy with cataplexy: a reappraisal. J Sleep Res. 2004;13(4):395–406. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 20. Hublin C, Kaprio J, Partinen M. The Ullanlinna Narcolepsy Scale: validation of a measure of symptoms in the narcoleptic syndrome. J Sleep Res. 1994;3(1):52–59. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 21. Maurer JT. Early diagnosis of sleep related breathing disorders. GMS Curr Top Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;7:1–20. Google Scholar,
  • 22. Netzer NC, Stoohs RA, Netzer CM, Clark K, Strohl KP. Using the Berlin questionnaire to identify patients at risk for the sleep apnea syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 1999;131(7):485–491. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 23. Chung F, Yegneswaran B, Liao P, et al.. STOP questionnaire: a tool to screen patients for obstructive sleep apnea. Anesthesiology. 2008;108(5):812–821. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 24. Horne JA, Östberg O. A self-assessment questionnaire to determine morningness-eveningness in human circadian rhythms. Int J Chronobiol. 1976;4(2):97–100. MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 25. Young T, Palta M, Dempsey J, Scatrud J, Weber S, Badr S. The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-aged adults. N Engl J Med. 1993;328(17):1230–1235. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 26. Sin DD, Fitzgerald F, Parker JD, Newton G, Floras JS, Bradley TD. Risk factors for central and obstructive sleep apnea in 450 men and women with congestive heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;160(4):1101–1106. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 27. Bollu PC, Yelam A, Thakkar MM. Sleep medicine: restless legs syndrome. Mo Med. 2018;115(4):380–387. MedlineGoogle Scholar,

Guidelines and Landmark Trials

  • 1. Schutte-Rodin S, Broch L, Buysse D, Dorsey C, Sateia M. Clinical guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic insomnia in adults. J Clin Sleep Med. 2008;4(5):487–504. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 2. Quaseem A, Kansagara D, Forclea MA, Cooke M, Denberg TD. Management of chronic insomnia disorder in adults: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2016;165(2):125–133. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 3. Sateia MJ, Buysse DJ, Krystal AD, Neubauer DN, Heald JL. Clinical practice guideline for the pharmacologic treatment of chronic insomnia in adults: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine clinical practice guideline. J Clin Sleep Med. 2017;13(2)307–349. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 4. Morgenthaler TI, Kapur VK, Brown TM, et al.. Practice parameters for the treatment of narcolepsy and other hypersomnia of central origin. Sleep. 2007;30(12):1705–1711. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 5. Epstein LJ, Kristo D, Strollo PJ, et al.. Clinical guidelines for the evaluation, management, and long-term care of obstructive sleep apnea in adults. J Clin Sleep Med. 2009;5(3):263–276. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 6. Qaseem A, Holty JE, Owens DK, et al.. Management of obstructive sleep apnea in adults: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159(7):471–483. MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 7. Aurora RN, Chowdhuri S, Ramar K, et al.. The treatment of central sleep apnea syndromes in adults: practice parameters with an evidence-based literature review and meta-analyses. Sleep. 2012;35(1):17–40. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 8. Aurora RN, Bista SR, Casey KR, et al.. Updated adaptive servo-ventilation recommendations for the 2012 AASM guideline: “The Treatment of Central Sleep Apnea Syndromes in Adults: Practice Parameters with an Evidence-Based Literature Review and Meta-Analyses”. J Clin Sleep Med. 2016;12(5):757–761. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 9. Auger RR, Burgess HJ, Emens JS, Deriy LV, Thomas SM, Sharkey KM. Clinical practice guideline for the treatment of intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders: advanced sleep-wake phase disorder (ASWPD), delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD), non-24-hour sleep wake rhythm disorder (N24SWD), and irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder (ISWRD). An update for 2015. J Clin Sleep Med. 2015;11(10):1199–1236. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 10. Aurora RN, Kristo DA, Bista SR, et al.. The treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in adults – an update for 2012: practice parameters with an evidence-based systematic review and meta-analyses: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Clinical Practice Guideline. Sleep. 2012;35(8):1039–1062. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 11. Winkelman JW, Armstrong MJ, Allen RP, et al.. Practice guidelines summary: treatment of restless legs syndrome in adults: report of the guideline development, dissemination, and implementation subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2016;87(24):2585–2593. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 12. Winkler A, Auer C, Doering BK, Rief W. Drug treatment of primary insomnia: a meta-analysis of polysomnographic randomized controlled trials. CNS Drugs. 2014;28(9):799–816. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 13. Scholz H, Trenkwalder C, Kohnen R, Kriston L, Riemann D, Hornyak M. Levodopa for the treatment of restless legs syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011;2:CD005504. Google Scholar,

Patient Presentation

  • 1. Buscemi N, Vandermeer B, Friesen C, et al.. Manifestations and Management of Chronic Insomnia in Adults. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 125. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2005. AHRQ pub no. 05-E021-2. Google Scholar,
  • 2. Longstreth WT Jr, Koepsell TD, Ton TG, Hendrickson AF, van Belle G. The epidemiology of narcolepsy. Sleep. 2007;30(1):13–26. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 3. Nishino S. Narcolepsy: pathophysiology and pharmacology. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68(suppl 13):9–15. MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 4. Young T, Skatrud J, Peppard PE. Risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea in adults. JAMA. 2004;291(16):2013–2016. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 5. Eckert DJ, Jordan AS, Merchia P, Malhotra A. Central sleep apnea: pathophysiology and treatment. Chest 2007;131(2):595–607. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 6. Aurora RN, Chowdhuri S, Ramar K, et al.. The treatment of central sleep apnea syndromes in adults: practice parameters with an evidence-based literature review and meta-analyses. Sleep. 2012;35(1):17–40. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 7. Sack RL, Auckley D, Auger RR, et al.. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders: part I, basic principles, shift work and jet lag disorders. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine review. Sleep. 2007;30(11):1460–1483. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 8. Thorpy MJ. Classification of sleep disorders. Neurotherapeutics 2012;9(4):687–701. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 9. Guo S, Huang J, Jiang H, et al.. Restless legs syndrome: from pathophysiology to clinical diagnosis and management. Front Aging Neurosci. 2017;9:171. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 10. Mai E, Buysse DJ. Insomnia: prevalence, impact, pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, and evaluation. Sleep Med Clin. 2008;3(2):167–174. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 11. Dauvilliers Y, Arnulf I, Mignot E. Narcolepsy with cataplexy. Lancet. 2007;369(9560):499–511. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 12. Epstein LJ, Kristo D, Strollo PJ, et al.. Clinical guidelines for the evaluation, management, and long-term care of obstructive sleep apnea in adults. J Clin Sleep Med. 2009;5(3):263–276. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 13.
    American Academy of Sleep Medicine
    . International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd ed. Darien, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine; 2014. Google Scholar,
  • 14.
    American Psychiatric Association
    . Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013. CrossrefGoogle Scholar,

Treatment Goals

  • 1. Schutte-Rodin S, Broch L, Buysse D, Dorsey C, Sateia M. Clinical guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic insomnia in adults. J Clin Sleep Med. 2008;4(5):487–504. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 2. Quaseem A, Kansagara D, Forclea MA, Cooke M, Denberg TD. Management of chronic insomnia disorder in adults: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2016;165(2):125–133. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 3. Morgenthaler TI, Kapur VK, Brown TM, et al.. Practice parameters for the treatment of narcolepsy and other hypersomnia of central origin. Sleep. 2007;30(12):1705–1711. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 4. Abad VC, Guilleminault C. New developments in the management of narcolepsy. Nat Sci Sleep. 2017;9:39–57. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 5. Qaseem A, Holty JE, Owens DK, et al.. Management of obstructive sleep apnea in adults: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159(7):471–483. MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 6. Eckert DJ, Jordan AS, Merchia P, Malhotra A. Central sleep apnea: pathophysiology and treatment. Chest 2007;131(2):595–607. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 7. Aurora RN, Chowdhuri S, Ramar K, et al.. The treatment of central sleep apnea syndromes in adults: practice parameters with an evidence-based literature review and meta-analyses. Sleep. 2012;35(1):17–40. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 8. Aurora RN, Bista SR, Casey KR, et al.. Updated adaptive servo-ventilation recommendations for the 2012 AASM guideline: “The Treatment of Central Sleep Apnea Syndromes in Adults: Practice Parameters with an Evidence-Based Literature Review and Meta-Analyses”. J Clin Sleep Med. 2016;12(5):757–761. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 9. Aurora RN, Kristo DA, Bista SR, et al.. The treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in adults – an update for 2012: practice parameters with an evidence-based systematic review and meta-analyses: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Clinical Practice Guideline. Sleep. 2012;35(8):1039–1062. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 10. Winkelman JW, Armstrong MJ, Allen RP, et al.. Practice guidelines summary: treatment of restless legs syndrome in adults: report of the guideline development, dissemination, and implementation subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2016;87(24):2585–2593. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,

Disease State Management

  • 1. Buscemi N, Vandermeer B, Friesen C, et al.. Manifestations and Management of Chronic Insomnia in Adults. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 125. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2005. AHRQ pub no. 05-E021-2. Google Scholar,
  • 2. Morgenthaler T, Kramer M, Alessi C, et al.. Practice parameters for the psychological and behavioral treatment of insomnia: an update. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine report. Sleep. 2006;29(11):1415–1419. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 3. Abad VC, Guilleminault C. New developments in the management of narcolepsy. Nat Sci Sleep. 2017;9:39–57. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 4. Epstein LJ, Kristo D, Strollo PJ, et al.. Clinical guidelines for the evaluation, management, and long-term care of obstructive sleep apnea in adults. J Clin Sleep Med. 2009;5(3):263–276. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 5. Qaseem A, Holty JE, Owens DK, et al.. Management of obstructive sleep apnea in adults: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159(7):471–483. MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 6. Eckert DJ, Jordan AS, Merchia P, Malhotra A. Central sleep apnea: pathophysiology and treatment. Chest 2007;131(2):595–607. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 7. Aurora RN, Chowdhuri S, Ramar K, et al.. The treatment of central sleep apnea syndromes in adults: practice parameters with an evidence-based literature review and meta-analyses. Sleep. 2012;35(1):17–40. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 8. Aurora RN, Bista SR, Casey KR, et al.. Updated adaptive servo-ventilation recommendations for the 2012 AASM guideline: “The Treatment of Central Sleep Apnea Syndromes in Adults: Practice Parameters with an Evidence-Based Literature Review and Meta-Analyses”. J Clin Sleep Med. 2016;12(5):757–761. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 9. Kim MJ, Lee JH, Duffy JF. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders. J Clin Outcomes Manag. 2013;20(11):513–528. MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 10. Guo S, Huang J, Jiang H, et al.. Restless legs syndrome: from pathophysiology to clinical diagnosis and management. Front Aging Neurosci. 2017;9:171. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 11. Levenson JC, Kay DB, Buysse DJ. The pathophysiology of insomnia. Chest. 2015;147(4):1179–1192. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 12. Szabadi E. Selective targets for arousal modifying drugs: implications for the treatment of sleep disorders. Drug Discov Today. 2014;19(5):701–708. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 13. Miyamoto M. Pharmacology of ramelteon, a selective MT1/MT2 receptor agonist: a novel therapeutic drug for sleep disorders. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2009;15(1):32–51. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 14. Katwala J, Kumar AK, Sejpal JJ, Terrence M, Mishra. Therapeutic rationale for low dose doxepin in insomnia patients. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 2013;3(4):331–336. CrossrefGoogle Scholar,
  • 15. Gerrard P, Malcolm R. Mechanisms of modafinil: A review of current research. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2007;3(3):349–364. MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 16. Agarwal P, Griffith A, Costantino HR, Vaish N. Gabapentin enacarbil – clinical efficacy in restless legs syndrome. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2010;6;151–158. Google Scholar,
  • 17. Stinson K, Tang NK, Harvey AG. Barriers to treatment seeking in primary insomnia in the United Kingdom: a cross-sectional perspective. Sleep. 2006;29(12):1643–1646. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 18. Thorpy MJ, Hiller G. The medical and economic burden of narcolepsy: implications for managed care. Am Health Drug Benefits. 2017;10(5):233–241. MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 19. Thorpy MJ, Dauvilliers Y. Clinical and practical considerations in the pharmacologic management of narcolepsy. Sleep Med. 2015;16(1):9–18. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 20. Auger RR, Burgess HJ, Emens JS, Deriy LV, Thomas SM, Sharkey KM. Clinical practice guideline for the treatment of intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders: advanced sleep-wake phase disorder (ASWPD), delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD), non-24-hour sleep wake rhythm disorder (N24SWD), and irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder (ISWRD). An update for 2015. J Clin Sleep Med. 2015;11(10):1199–1236. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 21. Aurora RN, Kristo DA, Bista SR, et al.. The treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in adults – an update for 2012: practice parameters with an evidence-based systematic review and meta-analyses: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Clinical Practice Guideline. Sleep. 2012;35(8):1039–1062. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,

Medications

  • 1. Schutte-Rodin S, Broch L, Buysse D, Dorsey C, Sateia M. Clinical guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic insomnia in adults. J Clin Sleep Med. 2008;4(5):487–504. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 2. ProSom, estazolam [Product Information]. Parsippany, NJ: Actavis Pharma, Inc.; 2016. Google Scholar,
  • 3. Dalmane, flurazepam [Product Information]. Eatontown, NJ: West-ward Pharmaceutical Corp.; 2010. Google Scholar,
  • 4. Doral, quazepam [Product Information]. Sylacauga, AL: Atland Pharmaceuticals, LLC; 2018. Google Scholar,
  • 5. Restoril, temazepam [Product Information]. Columbus, OH: American Health Packaging; 2018. Google Scholar,
  • 6. Halcion, triazolam. [Product Information]. Peapack, NJ: Greenstone, LLC; 2017. Google Scholar,
  • 7. Lunesta, eszopiclone. [Product Information]. Marlborough, MA: Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc.; 2014. Google Scholar,
  • 8. Sonata, zaleplon. [Product Information]. Hasbrouck Heights, NJ: Unichem Pharmaceuticals (USA), Inc.; 2017. Google Scholar,
  • 9. Ambien, zolpidem. [Product Information]. Hauppauge, NY: InvaGen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2008. Google Scholar,
  • 10. Rozerem, ramelteon. [Product Information]. Tulsa, OK: Physicians Total Care, Inc.; 2010. Google Scholar,
  • 11. Belsomra, suvorexant. [Product Information]. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc.; 2018. Google Scholar,
  • 12. Silenor, doxepin. [Product Information]. Morgantown, WV: Mylan Institutional Inc.; 2016. Google Scholar,
  • 13. Provigil, modafinil. [Product Information]. North Wales, PA: Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.; 2015. Google Scholar,
  • 14. Nuvigil, armodafinil. [Product Information]. North Wales, PA: Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.; 2017. Google Scholar,
  • 15. Zyrem, sodium oxybate. [Product Information]. Palo Alto, CA: Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2015. Google Scholar,
  • 16. Diamox, acetazolamide. [Product Information]. Philadelphia, PA: Lannett Company, Inc.; 2017. Google Scholar,
  • 17. Hetlioz, tasimelteon. [Product Information]. Washington, DC: Vanda Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2014. Google Scholar,
  • 18. Mirapex, pramipexole. [Product Information]. Ridgefield, CT: Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2018. Google Scholar,
  • 19. Requip, ropinirole. [Product Information]. Mahwah, NJ: Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., USA; 2018. Google Scholar,
  • 20. Neupro, rotigotine. [Product Information]. Smyrna, GA: UBC, Inc.; 2016. Google Scholar,
  • 21. Dostinex, cabergoline. [Product Information]. Peapack, NJ: Greenstone, LLC.; 2018. Google Scholar,
  • 22. Horizant, gabapentin enacarbil. [Product Information]. Atlanta, GA: Arbor Pharmaceuticals, LLC.; 2016. Google Scholar,
  • 23. Lyrica, pregabalin. [Product Information]. Vega Baja, PR: Pfizer Pharmaceuticals LLC; 2010. Google Scholar,
  • 24. Sinemet, carbidopa/levodopa. [Product Information]. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc.; 2018. Google Scholar,

Complementary and Integrative Health Approaches (CIHA)

  • 1. Morgenthaler T, Kramer M, Alessi C, et al.. Practice parameters for the psychological and behavioral treatment of insomnia: an update. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine report. Sleep. 2006;29(11):1415–1419. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 2. Rogers AE, Aldrich MS, Lin X. A comparison of three different sleep schedules for reducing daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy. Sleep. 2001;24(4):385–391. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 3. Epstein LJ, Kristo D, Strollo PJ, et al.. Clinical guidelines for the evaluation, management, and long-term care of obstructive sleep apnea in adults. J Clin Sleep Med. 2009;5(3):263–276. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 4. Qaseem A, Holty JE, Owens DK, et al.. Management of obstructive sleep apnea in adults: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159(7):471–483. MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 5. Aurora RN, Chowdhuri S, Ramar K, et al.. The treatment of central sleep apnea syndromes in adults: practice parameters with an evidence-based literature review and meta-analyses. Sleep. 2012;35(1):17–40. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 6. Aurora RN, Bista SR, Casey KR, et al.. Updated adaptive servo-ventilation recommendations for the 2012 AASM guideline: “The Treatment of Central Sleep Apnea Syndromes in Adults: Practice Parameters with an Evidence-Based Literature Review and Meta-Analyses”. J Clin Sleep Med. 2016;12(5):757–761. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 7. Auger RR, Burgess HJ, Emens JS, Deriy LV, Thomas SM, Sharkey KM. Clinical practice guideline for the treatment of intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders: advanced sleep-wake phase disorder (ASWPD), delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD), non-24-hour sleep wake rhythm disorder (N24SWD), and irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder (ISWRD). An update for 2015. J Clin Sleep Med. 2015;11(10):1199–1236. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 8. Kim MJ, Lee JH, Duffy JF. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders. J Clin Outcomes Manag. 2013;20(11):513–528. MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 9. Aurora RN, Kristo DA, Bista SR, et al.. The treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in adults – an update for 2012: practice parameters with an evidence-based systematic review and meta-analyses: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Clinical Practice Guideline. Sleep. 2012;35(8):1039–1062. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 10. Winkelman JW, Armstrong MJ, Allen RP, et al.. Practice guidelines summary: treatment of restless legs syndrome in adults: report of the guideline development, dissemination, and implementation subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2016;87(24):2585–2593. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,

Monitoring and Follow-Up

  • 1. Schutte-Rodin S, Broch L, Buysse D, Dorsey C, Sateia M. Clinical guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic insomnia in adults. J Clin Sleep Med. 2008;4(5):487–504. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
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Practical Clinical Management Tips

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Cultural Sensitivities and Health Disparities

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Special Populations

  • 1. Schutte-Rodin S, Broch L, Buysse D, Dorsey C, Sateia M. Clinical guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic insomnia in adults. J Clin Sleep Med. 2008;4(5):487–504. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 2. Quaseem A, Kansagara D, Forclea MA, Cooke M, Denberg TD. Management of chronic insomnia disorder in adults: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2016;165(2):125–133. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 3. Sateia MJ, Buysse DJ, Krystal AD, Neubauer DN, Heald JL. Clinical practice guideline for the pharmacologic treatment of chronic insomnia in adults: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine clinical practice guideline. J Clin Sleep Med. 2017;13(2)307–349. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 4. ProSom, estazolam [Product Information]. Parsippany, NJ: Actavis Pharma, Inc.; 2016. Google Scholar,
  • 5. Dalmane, flurazepam [Product Information]. Eatontown, NJ: West-ward Pharmaceutical Corp.; 2010. Google Scholar,
  • 6. Doral, quazepam [Product Information]. Sylacauga, AL: Atland Pharmaceuticals, LLC; 2018. Google Scholar,
  • 7. Restoril, temazepam [Product Information]. Columbus, OH: American Health Packaging; 2018. Google Scholar,
  • 8. Halcion, triazolam. [Product Information]. Peapack, NJ: Greenstone, LLC; 2017. Google Scholar,
  • 9. Lunesta, eszopiclone. [Product Information]. Marlborough, MA: Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc.; 2014. Google Scholar,
  • 10. Sonata, zaleplon. [Product Information]. Hasbrouck Heights, NJ: Unichem Pharmaceuticals (USA), Inc.; 2017. Google Scholar,
  • 11. Ambien, zolpidem. [Product Information]. Hauppauge, NY: InvaGen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2008. Google Scholar,
  • 12. Rozerem, ramelteon. [Product Information]. Tulsa, OK: Physicians Total Care, Inc.; 2010. Google Scholar,
  • 13. Belsomra, suvorexant. [Product Information]. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc.; 2018. Google Scholar,
  • 14. Silenor, doxepin. [Product Information]. Morgantown, WV: Mylan Institutional Inc.; 2016. Google Scholar,
  • 15. Thorpy MJ, Dauvilliers Y. Clinical and practical considerations in the pharmacologic management of narcolepsy. Sleep Med. 2015;16(1):9–18. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 16. Provigil, modafinil. [Product Information]. North Wales, PA: Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.; 2015. Google Scholar,
  • 17. Nuvigil, armodafinil. [Product Information]. North Wales, PA: Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.; 2017. Google Scholar,
  • 18. Zyrem, sodium oxybate. [Product Information]. Palo Alto, CA: Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2015. Google Scholar,
  • 19. Ahn YM. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in children. Korean J Pediatr. 2010;53(10):872–879. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 20. Felix O, Amaddeo A, Olmo AJ, et al.. Central sleep apnea in children: experience at a single center. Sleep Med. 2016;25:24–28. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 21. Guo S, Huang J, Jiang H, et al.. Restless legs syndrome: from pathophysiology to clinical diagnosis and management. Front Aging Neurosci. 2017;9:171. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 22. Kim MJ, Lee JH, Duffy JF. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders. J Clin Outcomes Manag. 2013;20(11):513–528. MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 23. Diamox, acetazolamide. [Product Information]. Philadelphia, PA: Lannett Company, Inc.; 2017. Google Scholar,
  • 24. Hetlioz, tasimelteon. [Product Information]. Washington, DC: Vanda Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2014. Google Scholar,
  • 25. Picchietti DL, Hensley JG, Bainbridge JL. Consensus clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease during pregnancy and lactation. Sleep Med Rev. 2015;22:64–77. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 26. Epstein LJ, Kristo D, Strollo PJ, et al.. Clinical guidelines for the evaluation, management, and long-term care of obstructive sleep apnea in adults. J Clin Sleep Med. 2009;5(3):263–276. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 27. Qaseem A, Holty JE, Owens DK, et al.. Management of obstructive sleep apnea in adults: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159(7):471–483. MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 28. Aurora RN, Chowdhuri S, Ramar K, et al.. The treatment of central sleep apnea syndromes in adults: practice parameters with an evidence-based literature review and meta-analyses. Sleep. 2012;35(1):17–40. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 29. Aurora RN, Bista SR, Casey KR, et al.. Updated adaptive servo-ventilation recommendations for the 2012 AASM guideline: “The Treatment of Central Sleep Apnea Syndromes in Adults: Practice Parameters with an Evidence-Based Literature Review and Meta-Analyses”. J Clin Sleep Med. 2016;12(5):757–761. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,

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