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PharmacotherapyFirst: A Multimedia Learning Resource

Quick Facts

  • 1.
    American Psychiatric Association
    . http://www.psychiatry.org. Accessed September 17, 2018. Google Scholar,
  • 2. Essau CA, Lewinsohn PM, Lim JX, Ho MR, Rohde P. Incidence, recurrence and comorbidity of anxiety disorders in four major developmental stages. J Affect Disord. 2018;228:248–253. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 3. Stein MB, Sareen J. Generalized anxiety disorder. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:2059–2068. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 4. Moreno-Peral P, Conejo-Cerón S, Motrico E, et al.. Risk factors for the onset of panic and generalised anxiety disorders in the general adult population: A systematic review of cohort studies. J Affect Disord. 2014;168:337–348. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 5. Leichsenring F, Leweke F. Social anxiety disorder. N Engl J Med. 2017;376:2255–2264. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 6. Meuret AE, Kroll J, Ritz T. Panic disorder comorbidity with medical conditions and treatment implications. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2017;13:209–240. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 7. DeVane CL, Chiao E, Franklin M, Kruep EJ. Anxiety disorders in the 21st century: Status, challenges, opportunities, and comorbidity with depression. Am J Manag Care. 2005;11(12 Suppl):S344-S353. MedlineGoogle Scholar,

Overview

  • 1. Nutt DJ. Neurobiological mechanisms in generalized anxiety disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;62(Suppl 11):22–27. MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 2. Dresler T, Guhn A, Tupak SV, et al.. Revise the revised? New dimensions of the neuroanatomical hypothesis of panic disorder. J Neural Transm. 2013;120(1):3–29. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 3. Pollack MH. Comorbidity, neurobiology, and pharmacotherapy of social anxiety disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;62(Suppl 12):24–29. MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 4. den Boer JA. Social anxiety disorder/social phobia: Epidemiology, diagnosis, neurobiology, and treatment. Compr Psychiatry. 2000;41(6):405–415. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 5. Locke AB, Kirst N, Shultz CG. Diagnosis and management of generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder in adults. Am Fam Physician. 2015;91(9):617–624. MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 6. Leichsenring F, Leweke F. Social anxiety disorder. N Engl J Med. 2017;376:2255–2264. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 7. Combs H, Markman J. Anxiety disorder in primary care. Med Clin North Am. 2014;98(5):1007–1023. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 8. Thompson E. Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A). Occup Med. 2015;65(7):601. CrossrefGoogle Scholar,
  • 9. Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JB, Löwe B. A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: The GAD-7. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(10):1092–1097. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 10. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB, Monahan PO, Löwe B. Anxiety disorder in primary care: Prevalence, impairment,comorbidity, and detection. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146(5):317–325. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 11. Muñoz-Navarro R, Cano-Vindel A, Wood CM, et al.. The PHQ-PD as a screening tool for panic disorder in the primary care setting in Spain. PLoS One. 2016;11(8):e0161145. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 12. Connor KM, Davidson JR, Churchill LE, Sherwood A, Foa E, Weisler RH. Psychometric properties of the social phobia inventory (SPIN). Br J Psychiatry. 2000;176:379–386. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 13. Weeks JW, Spokas ME, Heimberg RG. Psychometric evaluation of the mini-social phobia inventory (Mini-SPIN) in a treatment-seeking sample. Depress Anxiety. 2007;24(6):382–391. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 14. Stein MB, Sareen J. Generalized anxiety disorder. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:2059–2068. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 15. Moreno-Peral P, Conejo-Cerón S, Motrico E, et al.. Risk factors for the onset of panic and generalised anxiety disorders in the general adult population: A systematic review of cohort studies. J Affect Disord. 2014;168:337–348. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,

Guidelines and Landmark Trials

Patient Presentation

  • 1. Locke AB, Kirst N, Shultz CG. Diagnosis and management of generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder in adults. Am Fam Physician. 2015;91(9):617–624. MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 2. Combs H, Markman J. Anxiety disorder in primary care. Med Clin North Am. 2014;98(5):1007–1023. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 3.
    American Psychiatric Association
    . Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. CrossrefGoogle Scholar,

Treatment Goals

  • 1. Goodman WK. Selecting pharmacotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65(Suppl 13):8–13. MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 2. Starcevic V. Treatment goals for panic disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1998;18(6):19S–26S. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 3. Davidson JRT. Pharmacotherapy of social anxiety disorder: What does the evidence tell us? J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67(Suppl 12):20–26. MedlineGoogle Scholar,

Disease State Management

Medications

Complementary and Integrative Health Approaches (CIHA)

  • 1. Li AW, Goldsmith CW. The effects of yoga on anxiety and stress. Altern Med Rev. 2012;17(1):21–35. MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 2. Sharma M, Haider T. Tai chi as an alternative and complimentary therapy for anxiety: A systematic review. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2015;20(2):143–153. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 3. Amorim D, Amado J, Brito I, et al.. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture for anxiety disorders: A systematic review of clinical research. Complement Ther Clin Prac. 2018;31:31–37. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 4. Smith K, Leiras C. The effectiveness and safety of Kava Kava for treating anxiety symptoms: A systematic review and analysis of randomized clinical trials. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2018;33:107–117. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 5. Keefe JR, Mao JJ, Soeller I, Li QS, Amsterdam JD. Short-term open-label chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) therapy of moderate to severe generalized anxiety disorder. Phytomedicine. 2016;23(14):1699–1705. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 6. Mao JJ, Xie SX, Keefe JR, Soeller I, Li QS, Amsterdam JD. Long-term chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized clinical trial. Phytomedicine. 2016;23(14):1735–1742. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,

Monitoring and Follow Up

Cultural Sensitivities and Health Disparities

  • 1. Hofmann SG, Hinton DE. Cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2014;16(6):450. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 2. Colorafi K, Vanselow J, Nelson T. Treating anxiety and depression in primary care: Reducing barriers to access. Fam Pract Manag. 2017;24(4):11–16. MedlineGoogle Scholar,

Special Populations

  • 1. Connolly SD, Bernstein GA. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007;46(2):267–283. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 2. Kendig S, Keats JP, Hoffman MC, et al.. Consensus bundle on maternal mental health: Perinatal depression and anxiety. Obstet Gynecol. 2017;129(3):422–430. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 3. Avni-Barron O, Wiegartz PS. Issues in treating anxiety disorders in pregnancy. Psychiatric Times. 2011;28(9). http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/anxiety/issues-treating-anxiety-disorders-pregnancy. Accessed April 3, 2019. Google Scholar,
  • 4. Bar-Oz B, Einarson T, Einarson A, et al.. Paroxetine and congenital malformations: Meta-analysis and consideration of potential confounding factors. Clin Ther. 2007;29(5):918–926. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 5. Huybrechts KF, Bateman BT, Palmsten K, et al.. Antidepressant use late in pregnancy and risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. JAMA. 2015;313(21):2142–2151. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 6. Weissman AM, Levy BT, Hartz AJ, et al.. Pooled analysis of antidepressant levels in lactating mothers, breast milk, and nursing infants. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161(6):1066–1078. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 7. Andreescu C, Varon D. New research on anxiety disorders in the elderly and an update on evidence-based treatments. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2015;17(7):53. Crossref, MedlineGoogle Scholar,
  • 8. Subramanyan AA, Kedare J, Singh OP, Pinto C. Clinical practice guidelines for geriatric anxiety disorders. Indian J Psychiatry. 2018;60(Suppl 3):S371-S382. MedlineGoogle Scholar,

Interprofessional Collaborative Practice

Session Activity

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